The Federal Reserve Bank of New York works to promote sound and well-functioning financial systems and markets through its provision of industry and payment services, advancement of infrastructure reform in key markets and training and educational support to international institutions.
The Outreach and Education function engages, empowers and educates the Second District communities that the Bank serves, especially civic leaders, students, educators, small business owners, policymakers and the general public. It furthers the Bank's commitment to the region by listening to the communities we serve and leveraging our unique attributes to positively impact school and university programs, as well as analysis and research.
We investigate the impact of large swings in the housing market on nonmortgage borrowing,using CoreLogic geographic house price variation and Equifax-sourced FRBNY Consumer Credit Panel data for 1999 to 2012. First-differenced instrumental variables (FD-IV) estimates indicate that all homeowner types increased both housing and nonhousing debt in response to the housing boom. However, older and prime homeowners responded to house price changes by reallocating obligations between home equity and credit card debt, with little change in total debt, during both the comparatively stable 1999-2001 period and the 2007-12 downturn. Younger and marginally creditworthy homeowners' nonmortgage debts moved with house prices during both expansions and downturns. These results suggest meaningful wealth effects of the housing market onconsumption only for the boom period, but collateral effects throughout. A difference-in-differences estimation approach yields similar results. Finally, despite broad speculation, we find little substitution out of home equity debt into student loans in response to recent house price declines.